100   ^a20140922d2014    k  y0porb0103    ba
101 0 ^aeng
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200 1 ^a<The >Schengen system after Lisbon^efrom cooperation to integration^fEmilio De Capitani
330   ^aThis article outlines the main phases of the evolution of the Schengen cooperation. Since its beginning it has been shaped by several different dynamics: the fall of the Berlin Wall and the creation of the internal market between 1989 and 1992, the entry into force of the Amsterdam Treaty and the creation of the Freedom, Security and Justice Area in 1999, the impact of 9/11 on the EU borders, and security policies, the enlargement to the new central and eastern European Member States and, last but not least, by the EU constitutional re-shuffle which started with the draft Constitutional Treaty and ended up with the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty in December 2009. The initial Schengen aim to build a common working area for the Member States’ administrations has grown as a multi layered system where legislative, operational and financial administrations interact in a synergic way. The new Integrated Border Management concept, rooted in Article 77 TFEU, is now paving the way to a new supranational governance mirrored in a new evaluation system and appropriate measures also in case of emergency situations. In the same perspective, democratic accountability and protection of fundamental rights are now at the forefront of the Schengen evolution
461  1^tERA Forum^cTrier^vV. 15, n.º 1 (jun. 2014)^pp. 101-118
606   ^aAcordo de Schengen
606   ^aTratado de Lisboa
606   ^aPolítica criminal
606   ^aUnião Europeia
700  1^aCapitani,^bEmilio De
801   ^aPT^bCEJ^c20130103
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